Chasing Gideon: The Elusive Quest for Poor People's Justice

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To understand the criminal law in Pakistan one needs to understand the socio cultural phenomena of this country also. As one court put it, "[j]ury trials have historically served to vent community pressures and passions. Every man or government is in a state of nature when there exists no civil authority to settle a dispute between them. If an instruction is conceivable to the effect that the defendant undergo curative or withdrawal treatment or take up residence in a suitable home or institution, he shall be asked whether he consents to this. (1) If, at the main hearing, the public prosecutor at the main hearing adds new charges in respect of further criminal offences committed by the defendant, the court may, in an order, include them in the proceedings if it has jurisdiction and the defendant consents thereto. (2) The supplementary charges may be preferred orally.
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Blackstone's Handbook for Policing Students 2014

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Probably not – different interests in a 5th amendment right to counsel and a 6th amendment right. You’ll also likely use butter to grease the pan and a good non-stick frying pan to cook the omelet. Supreme Court Criminal Appeal No. 41 of 2000 1). Defendants confess their gilt or make incriminating statements in 4 different settings; they confess to friends and associates, who report these statements to officials.
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Blackstone's Police Q&A: Four Volume Pack 2013 (Blackstone's

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An Information is an allegation by a citizen (usually a police officer) that reasonable and probable grounds exist to believe another person (the accused) has committed a crime. The last sentence excepting bona fide holders in due course was omitted as surplusage. I see several problems with lawyer-jurors: (1) they may, as in this case, advise the rest of the jurors on the law; (2) the other jurors may turn to the lawyer-juror for legal interpretation; and (3) the lawyer-juror's views may carry more weight because of his or her status.
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Gilbert Criminal Law and Procedure New York 2005

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VIII. (Art. there being fault or negligence. Deeming appropriate, the public prosecutor or court may, by order, prolong the provisional release with such cash or financial security regarded as the security during the proceedings of the public prosecutor or court, as the case may be. They shall also provide for the manner in which the expense connected with such leave shall be borne, and may allow the prisoner, or anyone in his behalf, to reimburse the state for such expense.
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Introduction to Criminal Justice 12th (twelve) edition

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If the compulsory measures taken by the people's court, people's procuratorate or public security organ go beyond the time limits under the law, the crime suspect, defendant, his legal representative, his near relative, or lawyer or any other defender employed by the crime suspect or defendant shall have the right to request for the cancellation of such compulsory measures. The self-incrimination setting in police stations is strange and intimidating; suspects are searched thoroughly, have to stand in lineups, and are interrogated nonstop.
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new century, higher education teaching Criminal Procedure

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Anyone can be a party to a civil case including people, businesses, and government entities. Since government must prove identification beyond a reasonable doubt, they may have to throw out the case if the identification is thrown out. It amends 720 ILCS 5/16-3, which applies to theft of labor or services or use of property. It refers to the intent with which the criminal actor engages in conduct. ___________________ refers to the crime that occurs when there is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime.
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WebTutor(TM) on WebCT(TM) with eBook on Gateway Instant

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LoisLaw was recently sold to FastCase and will not be supported by Wolters Kluwer as of December 1, 2015. Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, were not included in transfer of functions of officers, agencies and employees of Department of the Treasury to Secretary of the Treasury, made by Reorg. An order from the certifying court must set forth: (a) the questions of law to be answered; and (b) a stipulated statement of all facts relevant to the questions certified, showing fully the nature of the controversy in which the questions arose.
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Fighting Money Laundering, With Comments on the Legislations

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Whoever, being an officer of the Army or Navy, or other person in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, orders, brings, keeps, or has under his authority or control any troops or armed men at any place where a general or special election is held, unless such force be necessary to repel armed enemies of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both; and be disqualified from holding any office of honor, profit, or trust under the United States.
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Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure: With Added Internal

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See section 441i of Title 2, The Congress. L. 93–443, title I, §101(f)(1), Oct. 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1268, prohibited fraudulent misrepresentation of campaign authority. Section 128 An inquirer may delegate other officials as follows:(1) As for any activity in connection with an inquiry but required to be fulfilled outside his district, he may commission any competent inquirer to deal with it on his behalf.(2) As for any insignificant activity in relation to the inquiry, even required to be fulfilled inside his district, he may order his subordinate to deal with it on his behalf in so far as the present Code or other law does not require him to carry it out in person.
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Modern Criminal Procedure: Cases, Comments, and Questions

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Article 145 If the People's Procuratorate decides not to initiate a prosecution with respect to a case that involves a victim, it shall send the decision in writing to the victim. Whoever discloses prior to its execution that a warrant has been applied for or has been issued, except so far as may be necessary to its execution, may be punished as for a criminal contempt of court. §11.9. The term also includes any combination of parts from which a handgun can be assembled.” (A) except a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer, to engage in the business of importing, manufacturing, or dealing in firearms, or in the course of such business to ship, transport, or receive any firearm in interstate or foreign commerce; or (B) except a licensed importer or licensed manufacturer, to engage in the business of importing or manufacturing ammunition, or in the course of such business, to ship, transport, or receive any ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce; (2) for any importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector licensed under the provisions of this chapter to ship or transport in interstate or foreign commerce any firearm to any person other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, except that— (A) this paragraph and subsection (b)(3) shall not be held to preclude a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector from returning a firearm or replacement firearm of the same kind and type to a person from whom it was received; and this paragraph shall not be held to preclude an individual from mailing a firearm owned in compliance with Federal, State, and local law to a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector; (B) this paragraph shall not be held to preclude a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer from depositing a firearm for conveyance in the mails to any officer, employee, agent, or watchman who, pursuant to the provisions of section 1715 of this title, is eligible to receive through the mails pistols, revolvers, and other firearms capable of being concealed on the person, for use in connection with his official duty; and (C) nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as applying in any manner in the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States differently than it would apply if the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the possession were in fact a State of the United States; (3) for any person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector to transport into or receive in the State where he resides (or if the person is a corporation or other business entity, the State where it maintains a place of business) any firearm purchased or otherwise obtained by such person outside that State, except that this paragraph (A) shall not preclude any person who lawfully acquires a firearm by bequest or intestate succession in a State other than his State of residence from transporting the firearm into or receiving it in that State, if it is lawful for such person to purchase or possess such firearm in that State, (B) shall not apply to the transportation or receipt of a firearm obtained in conformity with subsection (b)(3) of this section, and (C) shall not apply to the transportation of any firearm acquired in any State prior to the effective date of this chapter; (4) for any person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, to transport in interstate or foreign commerce any destructive device, machinegun (as defined in section 5845 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), short-barreled shotgun, or short-barreled rifle, except as specifically authorized by the Attorney General consistent with public safety and necessity; (5) for any person (other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector) to transfer, sell, trade, give, transport, or deliver any firearm to any person (other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector) who the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe does not reside in (or if the person is a corporation or other business entity, does not maintain a place of business in) the State in which the transferor resides; except that this paragraph shall not apply to (A) the transfer, transportation, or delivery of a firearm made to carry out a bequest of a firearm to, or an acquisition by intestate succession of a firearm by, a person who is permitted to acquire or possess a firearm under the laws of the State of his residence, and (B) the loan or rental of a firearm to any person for temporary use for lawful sporting purposes; (6) for any person in connection with the acquisition or attempted acquisition of any firearm or ammunition from a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, knowingly to make any false or fictitious oral or written statement or to furnish or exhibit any false, fictitious, or misrepresented identification, intended or likely to deceive such importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector with respect to any fact material to the lawfulness of the sale or other disposition of such firearm or ammunition under the provisions of this chapter; (7) for any person to manufacture or import armor piercing ammunition, unless— (A) the manufacture of such ammunition is for the use of the United States, any department or agency of the United States, any State, or any department, agency, or political subdivision of a State; (B) the manufacture of such ammunition is for the purpose of exportation; or (C) the manufacture or importation of such ammunition is for the purpose of testing or experimentation and has been authorized by the Attorney General; (8) for any manufacturer or importer to sell or deliver armor piercing ammunition, unless such sale or delivery— (A) is for the use of the United States, any department or agency of the United States, any State, or any department, agency, or political subdivision of a State; (B) is for the purpose of exportation; or (9) for any person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, who does not reside in any State to receive any firearms unless such receipt is for lawful sporting purposes. (b) It shall be unlawful for any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector to sell or deliver— (1) any firearm or ammunition to any individual who the licensee knows or has reasonable cause to believe is less than eighteen years of age, and, if the firearm, or ammunition is other than a shotgun or rifle, or ammunition for a shotgun or rifle, to any individual who the licensee knows or has reasonable cause to believe is less than twenty-one years of age; (2) any firearm to any person in any State where the purchase or possession by such person of such firearm would be in violation of any State law or any published ordinance applicable at the place of sale, delivery or other disposition, unless the licensee knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the purchase or possession would not be in violation of such State law or such published ordinance; (3) any firearm to any person who the licensee knows or has reasonable cause to believe does not reside in (or if the person is a corporation or other business entity, does not maintain a place of business in) the State in which the licensee's place of business is located, except that this paragraph (A) shall not apply to the sale or delivery of any rifle or shotgun to a resident of a State other than a State in which the licensee's place of business is located if the transferee meets in person with the transferor to accomplish the transfer, and the sale, delivery, and receipt fully comply with the legal conditions of sale in both such States (and any licensed manufacturer, importer or dealer shall be presumed, for purposes of this subparagraph, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to have had actual knowledge of the State laws and published ordinances of both States), and (B) shall not apply to the loan or rental of a firearm to any person for temporary use for lawful sporting purposes; (4) to any person any destructive device, machinegun (as defined in section 5845 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), short-barreled shotgun, or short-barreled rifle, except as specifically authorized by the Attorney General consistent with public safety and necessity; and (5) any firearm or armor-piercing ammunition to any person unless the licensee notes in his records, required to be kept pursuant to section 923 of this chapter, the name, age, and place of residence of such person if the person is an individual, or the identity and principal and local places of business of such person if the person is a corporation or other business entity.
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